Is the sky originally blue?


I can't even remember the last time I felt emotions looking at the blue sky while walking on the streets without a mask. There may be a reason to wear a mask because of the new respiratory virus called Corona recently, but even before the corona, there were many things to wear a mask due to yellow dust and fine dust, so air purifiers and air conditioning facilities were important.

As mentioned earlier, fine dust literally means dust with very small particles. General fine dust is a small size of about 1/5 to 1/7 the diameter of a human hair, and stays in the air in an invisible state. Since fine dust is so small, there is a risk that it can directly penetrate organs such as the lungs through the respiratory tract or move into the body along the blood vessels, adversely affecting health.

In this issue, among the various technologies for resolving fine dust, we will look into the fine dust reduction technology and classify the removal technology in detail. In addition, we will check the recent research trends through the overall flow of patent trends by reduction technology.


       1. What is fine dust?

 Particulate Matter (PM) refers to very small dust particles that are invisible to the naked eye. Depending on their size, they are also divided into fine dust (10 μm or less, PM10) and ultra-fine dust (2.5 μm, PM2.5).

When exposed to fine dust for a long time, immunity is rapidly lowered, which can expand to various diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and skin diseases as well as respiratory diseases such as colds/asthma/bronchitis. According to recent research trends, as a result of analyzing the substances contained in fine dust, it is becoming a bigger problem due to the high content of heavy metals. This is because there is a high risk of expanding to problems in the human body caused by heavy metals in addition to problems caused by fine dust.

2. Fine dust emission sources and reduction technology

 ⬤ Causes of Fine Dust Emissions

 Air pollutants are classified into primary pollutants directly discharged from emission sources and secondary pollutants produced through chemical reactions in the air after other precursors are discharged. Air pollutant emissions can be calculated for primary pollutants, but direct emissions cannot be calculated for secondary pollutants. Therefore, fine dust also includes primary fine dust and secondary fine dust depending on the generation process. 

 A large amount of primary fine dust is emitted in the form of dust from chimneys of fuel combustion facilities, car exhaust vents, and windblown dust. Secondary fine dust includes aerosols such as ammonium nitrate or ammonium sulfate, which are produced through chemical reactions of sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and ammonia already emitted in the air, and organic substances that have been condensed in the air. Looking at the fine dust analysis results measured in Seoul, it seems that about 20-40% of PM10 is composed of secondary fine dust. If the cause or solution to the primary fine dust emission is specifically and accurately analyzed, it is judged that it can be a key to solving the problem of fine dust.

 ⬤ Fine dust reduction technology

     Electrostatic Precipitator

The Electrostatic precipitator is a device that forms an appropriate unequal electric field using direct current high voltage and charges the dust in the gas using corona discharge in the electric field to separate and collect the charged corpuscle in the collecting electrode by the force of Coulomb.

            Hybrid Precipitator

   The Hybrid Precipitator technology is that maximize the increase in dust particle collection performance through a technology combination of conventional electric dust collection and filtered dust collection.

            Bag Filter

A filter is a filtering body for removing small solids in a gaseous phase or a liquid phase. A fabric filter, which is mainly used to control fine dust, is a very effective technology for separating particulate pollutants from combustion gas. The collection principle of a single fiber for this technology is operated by the mechanism of inertia, blocking, diffusion, and gravity in a filter.

        Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)

DPF consists of a device that collects fine dust from the exhaust from diesel engines and a device that burns the collected dust.

   3. Fine dust reduction technology and patent trend by emission source

<fine dust reduction technology and detailed classification of emission sources>

  ⬤ Application trends by year/country

Application trends by country and all years
(The gray shaded area is an unpulished period)

 The trend of repeating the trend of increase → decrease → increase → decrease in the number of applications is observed, and it seems that about 300 applications are being filed steadily. In particular, applications from Korea and China show a continuous upward trend (↗), and especially in the late 2010s, the rising trend of applications from Korea is confirmed.

It is inferred that the trend of application by country reflects the result of investment and demand according to the changing policy of each country or air quality (fine dust, NOx, SOx, etc.).

 Application trends by all applicants

Top10 applicants related to fine dust reduction

As a result of extracting the top 10 applicants related to fine dust reduction, the applicant with the largest number of applications is TOYOTA MOTOR (JP, 383 cases), followed by YANMAR (JP), ISUZU MOTOR (JP), TOPSOE HALDOR (DK ), KUBOTA (JP), and JOHNSON MATTHEY.

 Application trends by fine dust reduction technology

Application status by fine dust reduction technology


Application trend by year for fine dust reduction technology
(The gray shaded area is an unpulished period)

The characteristics of application  trends by fine dust reduction technology include DPF(R4) > scrubber, adsorption(R5) > Bag filter(R3) > electrostatic precipitator(R1). As for the electrostatic precipitator technology, dry electrostatic precipitator(R1-1) continues to increase over time, whereas wet electrostatic precipitator(R1-2) is declining overall. In addition, the DPF(R4), which accounted for the largest number of inventions, is declining at a very rapid rate.

  ⬤ Application trends by source of fine dust emission

Application status by fine dust emission source

Application status by fine dust emission source
(The gray shaded area is an unpublished period)

 As for the characteristics of the application trend by fine dust emission source, it is confirmed in the order of transporting sources (E3) > power generation, combustion (E1) > industrial sites (E2). This results is expected that because research and development on emission sources of transporting closely related to our lives was more frequent in R&D for the high application rate of DPF (R4) technology in Japan and the United States in the early 2010s and replacement time or costly large-scale facilities.

 4. Conclusion

Industry continues to develop, and consequently, more pollutants are emitted. It is impossible to recover the pollutants already discharged or restore the destroyed environment by blaming only the problem of technological development or lack of awareness or policy for these emission factors.

Therefore, rather than not taking reduction technologies and regulations because of the immediate cost or time required, it should be resolved through thorough cause analysis and related research and development.

 In addition, it seems necessary to respond jointly through the establishment of infrastructure such as cooperation with the government and corporations, and institutional incentives and support for the introduction of reduction technologies.



- Current Status and Problems of Fine Dust Pollution (Jang Young-ki, 2016)

- Characteristics of air pollutants and prevention facilities (instrumentation technology, 2009)

- Fine dust treatment principle and technology development trend (National Land No. 452, 2019)

- Management plan for prior pollution reduction in air emission facilities (Korea Environmental Institute, 1998)


 😄Report by JunKyu PARK, powe0519@wips.co.kr

IP Strategy 3 Team l Manager

JunKyu PARK specializes in patent trend analysis and patent big data processing using AI, focusing on major industries such as displays, batteries and polymers.


[International Briefing] US, KR




The U.S. Federal Communications Commission bans import and sale of Chinese telecommunications devices that pose a threat to national security


 Nov. 25, 2022, the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) issued an executive order prohibiting certification for the import and sale in the United States of Chinese telecommunications devices that pose a threat to national security.

 Looking at the background, the United States enacted the Secure and Trusted Communications Networks Act of 2019 (HR4998), hereinafter Network Act in 2019, and gave the FCC the authority to sanction telecommunications equipment and related service companies based on the executive branch’s decision on national security. On the basis of Network Act, the FCC designated eight Chinese and Russian telecom-related companies, including Huawei, as targets for sanctions. In Sept. 2022, as three additional Chinese telecommunications companies were designated1), the number of companies currently included in the sanctions list has increased to 11 companies in total.


The relevant administrative order are as follows.

. The FCC has adopted new rules that prohibit Chinese telecommunications equipment deemed to risk to a national security from being licensed for import or sale in the United States.

. The new rules apply to future approvals of equipment included on the Covered List issued by the FCC under the Network Act of 2019.

. Chinese telecommunications equipment and service companies subject to the rule include Huawei Technologies, ZTE Corporation, Hytera Communications, Hangzhou Hikvision Digital Technology and Dahua Technology (including Dahua Technology’s subsidiaries/affiliates)

 The rule completely prohibits the approval of equipment through the FCC's certification process. Therefore, it is clearly stipulated that the equipment will be subsequently approved according to the supplier's declaration of conformity process, or may not be imported or sold under rules allowing equipment license exemptions.

 In addition, the FCC has banned public funds from being used to purchase equipment on the Covered List to secure US networks, and has initiated a telecommunications network redemption program to remove the installed equipment.


<Original source of this post>





 Korean Intellectual Property Office published ‘IP-MIX’ guide

 Dec. 1, 2022, the Korean Intellectual Property Office (KIPO) announced that it would publish and distribute the 'Intellectual Property Mix Strategy for Technology Protection Optimization (IP-MIX) Strategy 1) Manual' to support companies, research institutes, and universities in strengthening technology protection. 

 As competition for technological supremacy has recently intensified, the annual damage due to technology leakage in Korea is USD43.4 bil., which is about 2.7% of the total nominal GDP of the country (USD1,602 bil.) in 2021. However, most of the companies, research institutes, and universities are having difficulty preparing technology protection strategies due to insufficient awareness of intellectual property and lack of information on specific technology protection methods.

 Reflecting this reality, KIPO organized this manual by focusing on three major points so that the department and person in charge of intellectual property can easily utilize and work for technology protection.

∙ First, suggest judgment criteria for selecting appropriate protection measures among patents and trade secrets with actual cases considering the characteristics of each technology developed by companies, research institutes, universities, etc.

∙ Second, provides ‘Intellectual Property Mix (IP-MIX) Strategy’ for the 9 major industries - materials/parts, machinery/equipment, chemistry, medicine/bio, electronics/information communication and aerospace - in order to explain effective technology protection methods according to the characteristics of each industry.

∙ Third, introduces the in-house intellectual property management system by company size so that the 'IP-MIX strategy' can be actually implemented in the technology development field.

 The manual is jointly prepared by KIPO and NISC (National Industrial Security Center), which is responsible for preventing the outflow of national core and cutting-edge technologies. KIPO stated, “a strategic approach is necessary that is tailored to the characteristics of each technology field and institution for effective technology protection,” and “hopes that this manual will be widely used in establishing the optimal technology protection strategy in the field of technology development.”

1) ‘Intellectual Property Mix (IP-MIX) strategy’ refers to a strategy to protect technology in multiple ways by utilizing various intellectual properties such as patents, trade secrets, designs, and trademarks in a complex manner according to the characteristics of the technology.


<Original source of this post>